Since a Western set of values guides the definition of "normal," psychological research can be considered __________. The authors thank the conference speakers and participants for their participation. The British Parliament passed the first set of protections for animals in 1876, with the Cruelty to Animals Act [19]. While it is important to acknowledge limitations to non-animal methods remain, recent developments demonstrate that these limitations should be viewed as rousing challenges rather than insurmountable obstacles. Competing interests: HRF and NB are employed by Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, which is a non-governmental organization which promotes higher ethical standards in research and alternatives to the use of animals in research, education, and training. Which of the following is defined as the branch of psychology that is concerned with establishing the principles of right and wrong behavior? The ethical obligation to protect and promote animal welfare in research. The value of animal use for predicting human outcomes has also been questioned in the regulatory toxicology field, which relies on a codified set of highly standardized animal experiments for assessing various types of toxicity. In addition, serious questions have been raised about the effectiveness of animal testing and research in predicting anticipated outcomes [5]–[13]. The five general principles from the APA are meant to __________. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Similarly, any approach that emphasizes evidence-based prevention would provide benefits to both animals and humans. PSYCH 105 Psychology as a Science and Profession (3)(BA) This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. The performance task for the subjects is embarrassing and performed in public. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Ethics in Research and Publication Grant Heller, Ph.D. 2. In August 2010, the Georgetown University Kennedy Institute of Ethics, the Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, The George Washington University, and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine jointly held a two day multi-disciplinary, international conference in Washington, DC, to address the scientific, legal, and political opportunities and challenges to implementing alternatives to animal research. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024059, Editor: Catriona J. MacCallum, Public Library of Science, United Kingdom. William Russell and Rex Burch published this seminal book in response to marked growth in medical and veterinary research and the concomitant increase in the numbers of animals used. A code of ethics aids psychologists in the following ways except in __________. The report, “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy,” was commissioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, partially due to the recognition of weaknesses in existing approaches to toxicity testing [49]. Yes It is now widely acknowledged by scientists and ethicists that animals can experience pain and distress [25]–[29]. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine is a nonprofit organization, and the authors adhered to PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. Members of the British Psychological Society have a general obligation to minimise discomfort to living animals. The “3 Rs” serve as the cornerstone for current animal research guidelines, but questions remain about the adequacy of existing guidelines and whether researchers, review boards, and funders have fully and adequately implemented the “3 Rs”. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Nevertheless, based on available information, it is clear that the number of animals used in research has not significantly declined over the past several decades. Animal Welfare Act excludes purpose-bred birds, rats, or mice, which comprise more than 90% of animals used in research [20]. 2. Some believe that deception is a necessary tool for psychological research because deception __________. Ethics is described as the principles of right and wrong behavior. No, Is the Subject Area "Toxicology" applicable to this article? In 1959, William Russell and Rex Burch published the seminal book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which emphasized reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use, principles which have since been referred to as the “3 Rs”. Apprehension around burgeoning medical research in the late 1800s and the first half of the 20 th century sparked concerns over the use of humans and animals in research , .Suspicions around the use of humans were deepened with the revelation of several exploitive research projects, … Ethics In Research 1. Animal rights: the view that (non-human) animals have moral or legal rights. Funding: The authors are grateful to the National Science Foundation (grant SES-0957163) and the Arcus Foundation (grant 0902-34) for the financial support for the corresponding conference, Animals, Research, and Alternatives: Measuring Progress 50 Years Later. here. This differs significantly from animal research guidelines, where the importance of the scientific question being researched commonly takes precedence over the interests of individual animals. Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase. Why is this behavior unethical? Animal Welfare Act and “other applicable Federal laws, guidelines, and policies” [24]. Scientists are cautioned not to cause animals’ pain or distress, and serious reason must be given for conducting a research. An ethical code generally implies documents at three levels: codes of business ethics , codes of conduct for employees, and codes of professional practice. Studies published in the last few decades have dramatically increased our understanding of animal sentience, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing harm is greater than has been appreciated and that current protections need to be reconsidered. Researchers and oversight boards have to evaluate the relevance of the research question and whether the tools of modern molecular and cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, and computational biology can be used in lieu of animals. Yes AIDS and HIV Infection Update: New Research, Ethical Responsibilities, Evolving Legal Frameworks, and Published Resources [Innovations in Clinical Practice] Sexual Behavior Between Clinical Supervisors and Trainees: Implications for Professional Standards [Professional Psychology] This Overview provides a brief summary of the ethical and scientific considerations regarding the use of animals in research and testing, some of which are highlighted in the accompanying Collection. These findings are consistent with a great deal of prior research that has found women to have higher, more steadfast ethical standards and to act more ethically than men in a variety of behavioral realms. Although pain and suffering are subjective experiences, studies from multiple disciplines provide objective evidence of animals' abilities to experience pain. Finally, several contributors presented the latest scientific advances in developing alternatives to the use of animals in pharmaceutical research and development and regulatory toxicity testing. Examples of existing and promising non-animal methods have been reviewed recently by Langley and colleagues, who highlighted advances in fields including orthodontics, neurology, immunology, infectious diseases, pulmonology, endocrine and metabolism, cardiology, and obstetrics [52]. The psychologist is considered an expert in his field. It does not show respect for the subjects. Yes Numerous studies have demonstrated that, even in response to gentle handling, animals can show marked changes in physiological and hormonal markers of stress [30]. Whereas animal research is largely investigator-initiated, this model tries to address the questions that are central to the care of women at risk for or affected by breast cancer. Depending on the study, it is sometimes necessary for psychologists to be deceptive. Today, these guidelines provide a platform for the protection of human research subjects, including the principles of respect, beneficence, and justice, as well as special protections for vulnerable populations. e24059. Yes The report emphasized that these methods can provide more predictive data, more quickly and affordably than traditional in vivo methods. Recent systematic reviews of treatments for various clinical conditions demonstrated that animal studies have been poorly predictive of human outcomes in the fields of neurology and vascular disease, among others [7], [48]. Strengthen your addiction knowledge base on your budget. Full reporting of all animal use is not required or made public in most countries. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Read the scenario below and answer the question that follows. Laws to protect animals in research have also been established. The health and well-being of animals. Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between right and wrong and in applying that understanding to their decisions. Human research protections emphasize specific principles aimed at protecting the interests of individuals and populations, sometimes to the detriment of the scientific question. This study, which began in 2002, could not have been accomplished with animal research [55]. Ethical objections to the use of animals have been publically voiced for more than a century, well before there was a firm scientific understanding of animal emotion and cognition [15]. This two-day symposium aimed to advance the study of the ethical and scientific issues surrounding the use of animals in testing and research, with particular emphasis on the adequacy of current protections and the promise and challenges of developing alternatives to the use of animals in basic research, pharmaceutical research and development, and regulatory toxicology. Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Affiliation Deception is not necessary for the successful completion of this study.The subjects were never debriefed in the study. Play behavior, an indicator of pleasure, is widespread in mammals, and has also been described in birds [45], [46]. In the UK the Home Office is responsible for legislation in the field of animal welfare. Despite the attention brought to this issue by Russell and Burch and since, the number of animals used in research and testing has continued to increase, raising serious ethical and scientific issues. Although scientists and ethicists have published numerous articles relevant to the ethics of animal research, current animal research guidelines do not articulate the rationale for the central differences between human and animal research guidelines. More recent studies have shown that crows are capable of creating and using tools that require access to episodic-like memory formation and retrieval [47]. No, Is the Subject Area "Breast cancer" applicable to this article? However, this is likely an underestimate, and it is impossible to accurately quantify the number of animals used in or for experimentation. Animals demonstrate coordinated responses to pain and many emotional states that are similar to those exhibited by humans [25], [26]. Why do some feel that it is not okay to use psychological research as a way to control behavior? Subsequently published articles address the implementation of this vision for improving the current system of chemical testing and assessment [50], [51]. For example, the U.S. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Ethics is a discussion of how people __________ behave. Suspicions around the use of humans were deepened with the revelation of several exploitive research projects, including a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners by the Nazi German regime during World War II and the Tuskegee syphilis study. Articles in the accompanying Collection only briefly touch on the many scientific and ethical issues surrounding the use of animals in testing and research. Speakers who contributed to the conference reviewed and contributed new knowledge regarding the cognitive and affective capabilities of animals, revealed through ethology, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and related disciplines. Ethical communication with clients dictates that psychologists will keep their conversations confidential unless required by law t/f? This Collection combines some papers that were written following this conference with an aim to highlight relevant progress and research. The examples above illustrate how innovative applications of technology can generate data more meaningful to humans, and reduce or replace animal use, but advances in medicine may also require novel approaches to setting research priorities. A psychologist, whose primary focus is sleep behaviors, gives an acquaintance advice regarding psychiatric medication. These reviews have raised questions about whether human diseases inflicted upon animals sufficiently mimic the disease processes and treatment responses seen in humans. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, D.C., United States of America, Citation: Ferdowsian HR, Beck N (2011) Ethical and Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing and Research. Further, while the “3 Rs” capture crucially important concepts, they do not adequately reflect the substantial developments in our new knowledge about the cognitive and emotional capabilities of animals, the individual interests of animals, or an updated understanding of potential harms associated with animal research. t/f? Yes Recent estimates suggest that at least 100 million animals are used each year worldwide [2]. Behavior suggestive of play has been observed in other taxa, including reptiles, fishes and cephalopods [43]. The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. The lack of consistency is further illustrated by the “U.S. Animal welfare: 1. These principles encouraged researchers to work to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to the minimum considered necessary, refine or limit the pain and distress to which animals are exposed, and replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives when possible. Efforts to objectively evaluate the value of animal research for understanding and treating human disease are particularly relevant in the modern era, considering the availability of increasingly sophisticated technologies to address research questions [9]. This collection aims to spur further steps forward toward a more coherent ethical framework for scientific advancement. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Students learn about major psychological models and theories, and the methods used to conduct scientific investigations in the discipline of psychology. Further, while the “3 Rs” capture crucially important concepts, they do not adequately reflect the substantial developments in our new knowledge about the cognitive and emotional capabilities of animals; an updated understanding of the harms inherent in animal research; and the changing cultural perspectives about the place of animals in society [3], [4]. Yes Apprehension around burgeoning medical research in the late 1800s and the first half of the 20th century sparked concerns over the use of humans and animals in research [14], [15]. In addition to the capacity to experience physical and psychological pain or distress, animals also display many language-like abilities, complex problem-solving skills, tool related cognition and pleasure-seeking, with empathy and self-awareness also suggested by some research. These findings also challenge our assumptions about species similarities and differences and their relevance in solving ethical dilemmas regarding the use of animals in research. The year 2007 marked a turning point in the toxicology field, with publication of a landmark report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC), highlighting the need to embrace in vitro and computational methods in order to obtain data that more accurately predicts toxic effects in humans. It is clear that there have been many scientific and ethical advances since the first publication of Russell and Burch's book. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Several papers have examined the concordance between animal and human data, demonstrating that findings in animals were not reliably replicated in human clinical research [5]–[13]. Yes For example, fear operates in a less organized subcortical neural circuit than pain, and it has been described in a wide variety of species [31]. Copyright: © 2011 Ferdowsian, Beck. Approximately ninety years later, the U.S. adopted regulations for animals used in research, with the passage of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966 [20]. Varying forms of depression have been repeatedly reported in animals, including nonhuman primates, dogs, pigs, cats, birds and rodents, among others [32]–[34]. The American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles (A-E) and specific Ethical Standards.The Introduction discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code. Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior". The Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation, which focuses on eradicating breast cancer, has challenged research scientists to move from animal research to breast cancer prevention research involving women. These principles encouraged researchers to work to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to the minimum considered necessary, refine or limit the pain and distress to which animals are exposed, and replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives when possible. Animals share genetic, neuroanatomical, and physiological similarities with humans, and many animals express pain in ways similar to humans. If a psychologist violates his or her ethical obligations but breaks no laws, the American Psychological Association could take action and __________. The test subjects are treated as objects rather than a living creature and are frequently abused, neglected and kept in improper cages. One example of how psychological research can be used to control harmful behavior would be __________. No, Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? It does not take into account the dignity of the subjects. Ethical lapses in research can significantly harm human and animal subjects, students, and the public. Whereas the U.S. Is the Subject Area "Research ethics" applicable to this article? Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Many researchers have also begun to rely solely on human data and cell and tissue assays to address large areas of therapeutic research and development. is necessary to get accurate results in some experiments. Self-awareness, assessed through mirror self-recognition, has been reported for chimpanzees and other great apes, magpies, and some cetaceans. No, Is the Subject Area "Pain" applicable to this article? Although discussion of these issues can be difficult, progress is most likely to occur through an ethically consistent, evidence-based approach. Yes For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Subsequent national and international laws and guidelines have provided basic protections, but there are some significant inconsistencies among current regulations [21]. More complex markers of psychological distress have also been described in animals. Ethical guidelines for animals, such as Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals (APA, 1996), have been established; thus, nowadays ethical guidelines on animal research are implemented and strongly supported by the law. In the last decade, concerns have mounted about how relevant animal experiments are to human health outcomes. Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research was developed by the American Psychological Association Committee on Animal Research and Ethics in 2010-11. Potential causes of harm include invasive procedures, disease, and deprivation of basic physiological needs. When compared with data from animal experiments, this system has produced more accurate pre-clinical data. No, Is the Subject Area "Drug research and development" applicable to this article? No, Is the Subject Area "Publication ethics" applicable to this article? These abuses served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1974) and the resulting Belmont Report [16]–[18]. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. The Master of Arts in Psychology and Addiction Studies is a degree designed to prepare you to advance in the field of addiction studies.This program is structured around courses that address the primary theories of addiction as well as addiction-specific topics related to the treatment and prevention of substance abuse. Overview of history and methods of psychology as a science and profession; applications and ethical issues in psychology. In the area of vaccine testing and development, a surrogate in-vitro human immune system has been developed to help predict an individual's immune response to a particular drug or vaccine [53], [54]. This Overview provides a brief summary of the ethical and scientific considerations regarding the use of animals in research and testing, and accompanies a Collection entitled Animals, Research, and Alternatives: Measuring Progress 50 Years Later, which aims to spur ethical and scientific advancement. Animals also share similarities with humans in genetic, developmental, and environmental risk factors for psychopathology [25], [26]. The field of psychology has made great strides toward equality by ignoring minority groups. Start studying Ethical research (100%) Psychology. These findings suggest that crows and related species display evidence of causal reasoning, flexible learning strategies, imagination and prospection, similar to findings in great apes. Learn about morality in the animal kingdom. The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) has published ethical guidelines for researchers, editors, and reviewers. Get tips for negotiating ethical dilemmas in everyday life. Conceived and designed the experiments: HRF NB. This system includes a blood-donor base of hundreds of individuals from diverse populations and offers many benefits, including predictive high-throughput in vitro immunology to assess novel drug and vaccine candidates, measurement of immune responses in diverse human populations, faster cycle time for discovery, better selection of drug candidates for clinical evaluation, and reductions in the time and costs to bring drugs and vaccines to the market. While a sea change is underway in regulatory toxicology, there has been much less dialogue surrounding the replacement of animals in research, despite the fact that far more animals are used in basic and applied research than in regulatory toxicology. The Introduction discusses the intent and organizational considerations of the Ethics Code. Because researchers often use very specialized assays and systems to address their hypotheses, replacement of animals in this area is a more individualized endeavour. Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, have been described in animals including chimpanzees and elephants [35], [36], [37]. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training” which stress compliance with the U.S. No, Is the Subject Area "Medicine and health sciences" applicable to this article? The majority of animal use in psychology is in research, and this is covered by the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. The subjects were never informed that they were participating in a psychological study. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024059, http://www.bmj.com/content/early/2005/12/31/bmj.39048.407928.BE.full.pdfhtml, http://clinicaltrials.ploshubs.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pctr.0010036, http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7438/514.extract, http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/nuremberg.html, http://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/helsinki.pdf, http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/belmont.html, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1872363/, http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm#PublicHealthServicePolicyonHumaneCareandUseofLaboratory, http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm, http://cabig.cancer.gov/action/collaborations/howstudy/. Resource limitations might require a strategic approach that emphasizes diseases with the greatest public health threats, which increasingly fall within the scope of preventable diseases. The use of animals in research is inherently more difficult to approach systematically because research questions are much more diverse and less proscribed than in regulatory toxicology [52]. Ethics. Psychologists are supposed to make the most ethical decision they can in any circumstance. Affiliations Speakers also explored the dimensions of harm associated with animal research, touching on the ethical implications regarding the use of animals in research. In contrast, certain dogs and cats have received special attention and protections. Despite serious shortcomings for many of these assays, most of which are 50 to 60 years old, the field has been slow to adopt newer methods. They argue that all life is sacred and animals go through a lot of distress during experiments in which they involuntarily take part. Other sources of harm for many animals include social deprivation and loss of the ability to fulfill natural behaviors, among other factors. 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